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Surface Science Techniques


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Technique

Description

Typical
Applications

Signal Detected

Resolution

Imaging

Navigation
Capability

Minimum
Spot Size

Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS)

Mass analysis surface and depth profiling

Dopant or compositional element depth analysis

Secondary Ions

Down to 1e12 at/cm3

No

No

100 μm X 100 μm raster

Quadrupole Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (Quad SIMS)

Thin Film and Shallow Implant Depth Profile

Dopant or compositional element depth profile

Secondary Ions

Down to 1E16 at/cm3

No

No

100 µm X 100 µm raster

Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis
(aka ESCA or XPS)

Elemental Surface analysis

Depth profiling with Ar sputter, chemical state information, thin film composition analysis

Photoelectrons

0.1 at%

No

No

20 μm

X-Ray Diffraction
(XRD)

Crystal Orientation Analysis

Grain size, orientation, and texture analysis

Crytal plane d-spacing

+/-.5%

No

No

10 mm X 1 mm STD
special 1mm spot

X-Ray Reflection
(XRR)

Reflectivity Analysis

Density, Interfacial Roughness, and Thickness of thin films

Reflected X-rays

+/- 3% of signals detected

No

No

10 mm x 50 mm

Atomic Force Microscopy
(AFM)

Surface topography

Roughness of thin films, and step height information

Atomic morphology

< 2 Å

Yes

Yes (Manual)

50 Å

Rutherford Backscattering spectrometry  (RBS)

Elemental surface analysis Thin film stoichiometry and composition and impurity analysis of films and materials Backscattered ions

1 E 14/ cm2

Dependent on mass of target atom.

No No

1 mm for macro beam

1 for micro beam

Ion Channeling

Elemental analysis and depth profiling for single crystals Lattice location of defects and impurities in single crystal materials Backscattered ions

1 E 14/cm2

Dependent on mass of target atom.

No No

1 mm for macro beam

1 um for micro beam

Micro-Raman Spectroscopy (µ-RS)

Molecular composition

Defect analysis, thin film monitoring

Bond vibration frequencies

Sample dependent

No

Yes

1 μm

 

 

Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TXRF)

Elemental composition

Trace contamination on wafer surfaces

Secondary x-ray fluorescence

1 E 9/cm2

Yes

Yes

1 cm

 

 

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